Korean Alphabet

Hangul – 한글

Consonants – 자음

Dictionary Order: ㄱ, (ㄲ), ㄴ, ㄷ, (ㄸ), ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, (ㅃ), ㅅ, (ㅆ), ㅇ, ㅈ, (ㅉ), ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅍ, ㅎ

 Sound Order Chart:

Shape

Sound

Similar to

k or g

good

k’

king

kk

sky

n

no

t or d

do

t’

tower

tt or dd

stop

flapped “r” at beginning

“l” at the end of a syllable

run
learn

m

mother

b or p

bad

p’

pool

pp

spy

s

house

ss

size

“empty/no-sound” at beginning, “ng” at the end of a syllable

young

j or ch

jump

ch’

church

jch

pretzel

h

hello

***Notes: The sound letters listed above are approximate correlations.  Just as English has its own specific sounds for its letters, so does Korean.  Pay more attention to the “Similar to” column listed above, these are closer to the actual Korean sound than the independent Romanized letters.


 Vowels – 모음

Dictionary Order: ㅏ, (ㅐ, ㅒ), ㅑ, ㅓ, (ㅔ, ㅖ), ㅕ, ㅗ, (ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅚ), ㅛ, ㅜ, (ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ), ㅠ, ㅡ, (ㅢ), ㅣ

Sound Order Chart:

Shape

Sound

Similar to

a

father

ya

yard

wa

wow

eo

cup

yeo

young

wo

one

eu

good

ui

“no similarity”

o

order

yo

yoga

u

boot

yu

you

ee

easy

wee

we

e

editor

ye

yes

we

weather

ae

ate

yae

yankie

wae

wagon

oe

wait

***Notes: Some of the above vowels have lost some distinction from one another in modern speaking.  While some older people (above age 60) still have some differences in the vowels like ㅐ and ㅔ, and their diphthong formationsㅙ, ㅞ, ㅚ,  younger speakers have no difference in standard Korean pronunciation.  The distinction between ㅒ, and ㅖ, has also been lost among the younger generation and ㅖ, may be pronounced as ㅔ after some consonants (except ㄹ).

            ㅢ is also a difficult vowel to pronounce.  Depending on the situation it has a varied pronunciation.  ㅢat the initial sullable position without any preceding consonant it may be pronounced as ㅡ : 의사  [ 의사  |  으사 ]. ㅢat the non-initial position of a syllable or at the syllable-initial position with a preceding consonant, ㅢmay be pronounced as ㅣ: 회의  [회의  |  회이 ]. When ㅢ is used as a possessive particle, it may be pronounced as ㅔ : 우리의  [ 우리의  |  우리에 ]   의의의  [ 으이에 ]


 Formation of some vowels and diphthongs

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